The charger type (socket), and the vehicle’s outlet port will determine the connectors you choose. Rapid chargers can use CHAdeMO or CCS (Combined Charging Standard), while Type 2 connectors are used on the charger side. Type 2 Type 1 Commando or Type 3 plug outlets are used for both fast and slow units.
However, this is not always the case. Increasing numbers of Asian car manufacturers are switching to European standards to sell cars in the region. Pure-electric models use Type 2CCS. For its second-generation model, the Nissan Leaf switched to a type 2 charging cable but retained CHAdeMO for charging DC.
Two cables are included with most EVs for AC charging. One with a three-pin connector and one with a Type 2- connector charger-side. Both cables have a compatible connector to connect to the car’s inlet. These cables allow an EV to connect to most untethered charging points. However, tethered units will require the use of the appropriate connector type.
The Nissan Leaf MkI is one example. It comes with both a Type 3-pin-to–Type 1 and Type 2-to–Type 1 cables. Renault Zoe comes with a different charging setup and comes with either a Type 3-to-Type 2 or Type 2-to-Type 2. cable. Both models have tethered connectors that are attached to their charging units for rapid charging.
- 7kW fast charging with one of the three connector types
- 22kW fast charging using one of the three connector types
- Tesla Destination network offers fast charging of 11kW
Untethered units can be tethered, or they can have tethered cables.
Fast chargers typically have a rating of either 7 kW, 22 kW (single or three-phase 32A) Fast chargers are rated at AC charging for the majority, but some networks have installed 25 kW DC chargers equipped with CCS and CHAdeMO connectors.
Fast chargers tend to be 7 kW in power and untethered. However, some units that are used at home or work have cables.
Only models that are compatible with the connector type of the cable will be able to use it if it is tethered to a device. A Type 1 tethered cable could be used by a Nissan Leaf of the first generation, but not by a Leaf of the second generation, which has a Type 2. The untethered units can therefore be used by any EV equipped with the right cable and are more flexible.
The charging rates for fast chargers will vary depending on which model you have. Not all models can accept 7 kW or higher.
These models can still plug into the charger, but they will draw only the maximum power that the onboard charger accepts. A Nissan Leaf equipped with a 3.3kW onboard charger will draw only 3.3kW even though the fast charging point is 7kW or 22kW.
Tesla’s “destination” chargers are capable of providing 11 kW and 22 kW power, but they, like the Supercharger network for Tesla, are only intended to be used by Tesla models. Tesla provides some Type 2 chargers at its destinations. These are compatible with all plug-in models that use the compatible connector.
Charging At Work
- Slow chargers
- Slow charging of 3 kW to 6 kW on any one of the four connector types
- Charging units can be either untethered or have tethered cables
- Include mains charging as well as specialist chargers
Often Covers Home Charging
The majority of slow charging units can be rated up to 3kW. This is a round figure that covers most slow-charging devices. Slow charging takes place between 2.3 kW to 6 kW. However, the most popular slow chargers are rated as 3.6 kW (16A). A three-pin plug charges the car at 2.3 kW (10A). However, most lamp-post chargers can charge the car at 5.5kW (some are 3 kW).
The charging time will vary depending on which charging unit is being used and the EV being charged. A full charge of a 3kW unit will take between 6-12 hours. Slow charging units do not require a cable to connect the EV to the charger.
Many owners use slow charging to charge their electric cars. Slow units can be used at home, but work as well as public points are also possible. Slower public charge points, which are often older and less common than fast units, tend to have longer charging times.
Although slow charging can be done using a 3-pin socket with a standard 3-pin socket to power an EV, the charging time is longer and requires more current. It is highly recommended that anyone who needs to charge EVs regularly at home or in the workplace install an EV charging unit by an authorized installer.